Zulliger Test - Hans Zulliger
Zulliger Group TestThe Zulliger Group Test was originally created in 1942 for the Swiss Army Psychological Service. At first, the Army Psychological Service had intended to use the existing form-interpretation tests, such as the Rorschach and Behn-Rorschach card series. However, this meant that if, for instance, 60 officer candidates were to be tested, the test had to be administered to all 60 candidates individually. This would have required too much time - about 30 hours for the recording of the test alone. Therefore, the attempt was made to test simultaneously entire groups of officer candidates, etc. The possibility was discussed of projecting a card series upon a screen and also of a method that would permit the recording of the answers. However, the cards proved to be too complicated for such an undertaking. The objection was further raised that the methods prescribed by the creators of the tests could not be changed without leading to serious errors. Therefore, the plan to project some of the cards in the existing picture series was abandoned.
We were in need of a form-interpretation test which, while not drawn form the existing series, woud lend itself to the testing of groups consisting of as many as 30-60 subjects. For this purpose, was select four ink blots from among 600 ink blots that Zulliger himself had made. They were tried out on a large number of subjects, and compared with the corresponding individual tests Rorschach or Behn-Rorschach Tests for the respective subjects. Certanis flaws were then discovered in the series. There upon, from some 400 additional ink blots, two more were selected that stimulated the kinesthetic responses particularly well. This series of six was again tried out on a significant number of subjects, just as the series of four had been.
The series of six proved to be usable. The attempt could be made to reduce it to three pictures. They had been standardized with a large sample and they have proven to be reliable.
Zulliger Indiviual TestWhile it is true that occasionally short individual diagnoses were prepared, based upon the examination with the three plates, Zulliger had never imagined that these three pictures could be developed into a useful individual test; it was the good fortune of the Institute for Psychology and Characterology at the University of Freiburg in Breisgau to make this discovery, and we owe a debt of gratitude to its director, Prof. Robert Heiss, for his suggestion to the publishing house that it publish the test in the form of cards. Subsequently they were so published, and it became necessary to provide a special introduction.
Accordingly, the individual test developed from the original "group test." Very lengthy preliminary research was necessary in order to write this book. A great deal of comparative study was required, comparing the results on Rorschach and Behn Tests with those on the Zulliger Test, administered to the same subjects. Although one could indeed rely in part on the resuls of the Zulliger Group Test, it was discovered soon enough that it is an entirely different matter whether the subject interprets slides projected upon a screen or produces his responses to cards presented to him individually. The way of perceiving is different, and accordingly the subject produces different interpretations.
Experience with the Zulliger Individual Test has proven that, in their scope, its results are frequently entirely in keeping with those produced by the Rorschach and the Behn-Rorschach Tests. From time to time, it even produces them in a much more concentrated form. The three cards contain all the essential elements of the Ro and the Bero.
Occasionally, however, the test is "unproductive." In that case, there is still enough opportunity later to use one or both of the other form-interpretation tests. Moreover, experience has shown that both the Rorschach and the Behn Tests may also be "unproductive" at times. Other projective tests may be unproductive too: it dependes on the extent to which the test has the ability to appeal to the subject. This is another reason why it is advisable to use a "test battery": if not all the tests, the perhaps one or the other of them will appeal to the subject.
The Zulliger Individual and Group Test. Edited by Fritz Salomon (ed. international Universities Press, Inc. New York), 8-11.